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Diabetes and High Blood Pressure

The link between diabetes and blood pressure:

High blood pressure is twice as likely to strike a person with diabetes than a person without diabetes. Left untreated, high blood pressure can lead to increased risk for heart disease and stroke. In fact, a person with diabetes and high blood pressure is four times as likely to develop heart disease than someone who does not have either of the conditions.

What is high blood pressure?

Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the artery walls. Each time the heart beats, it is pumping blood into these arteries - resulting in the highest blood pressure when the heart contracts and is pumping the blood. High blood pressure, or hypertension, directly increases the risk of coronary heart disease (heart attack) and stroke (brain attack). With high blood pressure, the arteries may have an increased resistance against the flow of blood, causing the heart to pump harder to circulate the blood.

Two numbers are used to measure blood pressure. The higher number, the systolic pressure, refers to the pressure inside the artery when the heart contracts and is pumping the blood through the body. The lower number, the diastolic pressure, refers to the pressure inside the artery when the heart is at rest and is filling with blood. Both the systolic and diastolic pressures are recorded as "mm Hg" (millimeters of mercury). This recording represents how high the mercury column is raised by the pressure of your blood.

High blood pressure, also called hypertension, is defined in an adult if your blood pressure readings are consistently 140 mm Hg or greater systolic pressure and/or 90 mm Hg or greater diastolic pressure, or 140 (systolic) / 90 (diastolic).

New Blood Pressure Guidelines For Controlling Diabetes

According to the American Heart Association, a normal blood pressure reading for adults is a systolic pressure of less than 140 mm Hg and a diastolic pressure of less than 90 mm Hg. However, in 1997 the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute issued specific blood pressure goals for people with diabetes. They recommend that people with diabetes keep their systolic pressure at 130 mm Hg or less and their diastolic pressure at 85 mm Hg or less.

What are the symptoms of high blood pressure?

Often, persons with high blood pressure do not have noticeable symptoms. If the blood pressure is greatly elevated, an individual may experience the following. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:

  • headache
  • dizziness
  • blurred vision

The symptoms of high blood pressure may resemble other medical conditions or problems. Always consult your physician for a diagnosis.

Preventing high blood pressure:

The American Diabetes Association recommends the following to help prevent the onset of high blood pressure:

  • Reduce salt intake.
  • Learn to relax.
  • Exercise regularly.
  • Maintain a reasonable weight.
  • Consume alcohol in moderation.
  • Stop smoking.
  • Monitor blood pressure.

Treatment for high blood pressure:

Specific treatment for high blood pressure will be determined by your physician based on:

  • your age, overall health, and medical history
  • extent of the disease
  • your tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies
  • expectations for the course of the disease
  • your opinion or preference

Aside from taking preventive measures such as exercise, a balanced diet, and eliminating smoking, treatment also may include medications prescribed by your physician.

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